Summary results for four key sectors: digital services, R&D services, corporate services and manufacturing.
Compare total tax cost rankings for 10 countries, four key industry sectors and all cities featured in the study.
Country-by-country summaries highlight the study results for each country, its sectors, cities and cost trends.
Overview summaries for all 19 industry-specific business operations analyzed in Competitive Alternatives.
Summary results for 111 featured cities are presented by region: Asia Pacific, Europe and five major regions within North America.
Profiles of all 133 cities included in Competitive Alternatives provide an overview of study results and key socio-economic information.
KPMG’s guide to comparing international business locations in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific.
A comparison of business costs in more than 100 cities in 10 countries.
A comprehensive analysis of 26 cost factors ranked across 10 countries.
A comparison of costs for 19 specific industries in four key sectors.
A special report focusing on tax costs for 10 countries and four key sectors.
Since 1996, Competitive Alternatives has been providing insight into business location costs in
cities and countries around the world, with special focus on North America and leading mature market economies in Europe
and Asia-Pacific. Business costs represent one important factor considered in virtually all corporate location decisions,
thus making Competitive Alternatives a valuable reference for corporations evaluating their national or international
Competitive Alternatives 2016, the latest edition of this biennial KPMG series, compares business
costs in more than 100 cities in 10 countries, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico,
the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The surging value of the US dollar in 2015 has greatly impacted the global
business landscape, significantly constraining US competitiveness. The high value of the US dollar drives
down the cost of doing business in all other countries, when measured in US dollar terms. The US now stands
out as a high cost business location relative to its peers.
Competitive Alternatives includes business cost rankings for more than 100 cities
in the 10 study countries.
In addition to the main Competitive Alternatives 2016 study, a separate
special report, Competitive Alternatives 2016 Special Report: Focus on Tax,
has also been released on July 12, 2016. This report assesses the general tax
competitiveness of the 10 study countries, with an emphasis on tax costs in
51 major international cities.
Use the Results Lookup section of this site to drill down into full details of the study for any country, city, sector, industry or cost factor.